hidden curriculum: the perspective presented within instruction that reinforces the dominant cultural narrative and existing power structures by which schools and education merely perpetuate oppression.

ill-structured problem: a problem having no specified set of steps nor prescribed process by which to arrive at a solution.

programmed instruction: an instructional method from Behaviorist Theory wherein students are presented with prepared instructional materials and an assessment of the student’s understanding of the material. Based on the assessment further instructional material may be presented on the same topic or new material may be presented to continue building knowledge.

scaffolding: necessary prior knowledge and skills taught strategically to support future learning.

self-efficacy: one’s belief about their own capabilities to transform skills into action that depends on the specific task, environment, experience, and current readiness.

triadic reciprocity: the process by which people learn according to Social Cognitive Theory, involving the reciprocal relationships between behavior, environment, and cognition.






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